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Driver Adaptation to Information and Assistance Systems

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Driver Adaptation to Information and Assistance Systems


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Probability, Statistics, and Decision for Civil Engineers, PDF Free Download

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Designed as a primary text for civil engineering courses, as a supplementary text for courses in other areas, or for self-study by practicing engineers, this text covers the development of decision theory and the applications of probability within the field.


Preface

This book is designed for use by students, practitioners, teachers, and researchers in civil
engineering. Most books on probability and statistics are intended for readers from many fields, and
therefore the question might be asked, “Why is it necessary to have a book on applied probability and
statistics for civil engineers alone?” Further, within civil engineering itself, we might ask, “Why is it
reasonable to attempt to write to an audience with such widely varying needs?” The need for writing
such a book is a result of the unusual status of probability and statistics in civil engineering.

Although virtually all forward-looking civil engineers see the rationality and utility of probabilistic
models of phenomena of interest to the profession, the number of civil engineers trained in probability theory has been limited. As a result there has not yet been widespread adoption of such models in practice or even in university courses below the advanced graduate level. Indeed, there has not yet been sufficient development of such models to permit a unified probabilistic approach to the many aspects of the strength of materials, soil mechanics, construction planning, water-resource design, and many other subjects where the methods could clearly be useful.

Many departments of civil engineering now require that their students study probability or
statistics. Subsequent undergraduate technical courses, however, usually lack material that draws
upon that study, and this often leaves the student without an appreciation for possible implications of
the theory. Through the use of illustrations and problems taken solely from the civil-engineering field
this book is designed to develop this appreciation for applications. It can serve as a primary text for a
course within a civil-engineering department or as a supplementary text for courses taught in other
departments. The major compromise here was the acceptance of the risk of obscuring or confusing the basic theory in describing the illustrative physical problem. We could have avoided this risk by using only examples dealing with coins, dice, red and black balls, etc., but the desire to develop the ability to construct mathematical models of physical phenomena in civil-engineering applications weighed heavily in favor of professional illustrations.

Students finishing such a professionally oriented probability course may or may not go on to
advanced courses in the theory. This consideration dictated at least an introductory coverage of a
wide variety of material coupled with a thorough treatment of the fundamentals. The kinds of
compromises involved in trying to decide between breadth in subject matter and depth in
fundamentals are obvious. It is unlikely that our many decisions of this kind will be judged optimal by all, or, indeed, by ourselves in time.








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8051 Serial communication - Microcontroller Programming and Embedded Systems

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Serial Communication is a form of I/O in which the bits of a byte being transferred appear one after other in a timed sequence on a single wire. Serial Communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The Synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time, while the asynchronous method transfers a single byte at a time. In Synchronous Communication the data get transferred based on a common clock signal. But in Asynchronous communication, in addition to the data bit, one start bit and one stop bit is added. These start and stop bits are the parity bits to identify the data present between the start and stop bits.






The 8051 has two pins that are used specifically for transferring and receiving data serially. These two pins are called TXD and RXD and are part of the Port-3 group (Port-3.0 and Port-3.1). Pin 11 of the 8051 is assigned to TXD and pin 10 is designated as RXD. These pins are TTL compatible; therefore they require a line driver to make them RS232 compatible. The line driver chip is MAX232. The MAX232 uses +5v power source, which is same as the source voltage for 8051.

8051 Interrupts Programming - Microcontroller Programming and Embedded Systems

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Interrupt is one of the most important and powerful concepts and features in Microcontroller / processor applications. Almost all the real world and real time systems built around microcontrollers and microprocessors make use of interrupts.
What is Interrupt
The interrupts refer to a notification, communicated to the controller, by a hardware device or software, on receipt of which controller momentarily stops and responds to the interrupt. Whenever an interrupt occurs the controller completes the execution of the current instruction and starts the execution of anInterrupt Service Routine (ISR) or Interrupt Handler. ISR is a piece of code that tells the processor or controller what to do when the interrupt occurs. After the execution of ISR, controller returns back to the instruction it has jumped from (before the interrupt was received). The interrupts can be either hardware interrupts or software interrupts.
Why need interrupts
An application built around microcontrollers generally has the following structure. It takes input from devices like keypad, ADC etc; processes the input using certain algorithm; and generates an output which is either displayed using devices like seven segment, LCD or used further to operate other devices like motors etc. In such designs, controllers interact with the inbuilt devices like timers and other interfaced peripherals like sensors, serial port etc. The programmer needs to monitor their status regularly like whether the sensor is giving output, whether a signal has been received or transmitted, whether timer has finished counting, or if an interfaced device needs service from the controller, and so on. This state of continuous monitoring is known as polling.

In polling, the Microcontroller keeps checking the status of other devices; and while doing so it does no other operation and consumes all its processing time for monitoring. This problem can be addressed by using interrupts. In interrupt method, the controller responds to only when an interruption occurs. Thus in interrupt method, controller is not required to regularly monitor the status (flags, signals etc.) of interfaced and inbuilt devices.

8051 Interfacing to External Memory

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